Version 3, 29 June 2007

Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this 
license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software 
and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed 
to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, 
the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to 
share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free 
software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU 
General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to 
any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to 
your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. 
Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the 
freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if 
you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, 
that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free 
programs, and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these 
rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain 
responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you 
modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis 
or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that 
you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the 
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: 
(1) assert copyright on the software, and 
(2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, 
    distribute and/or modify it.

For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains 
that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and 
authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as 
changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to 
authors of previous versions.

Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified
versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do 
so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users' 
freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse 
occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is 
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If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready 
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as needed to protect the freedom of users.

Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. 
States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of 
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to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program 
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that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and 
modification follow.


0. Definitions.

“This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

“Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds 
of works, such as semiconductor masks.

“The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this 
License. Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and 
“recipients” may be individuals or organizations.

To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work 
in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of 
an exact copy. The resulting work is called a “modified version” of 
the earlier work or a work “based on” the earlier work.

A “covered work” means either the unmodified Program or a work based 
on the Program.

To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without 
permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for 
infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a 
computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, 
distribution (with or without modification), making available to the 
public, and in some countries other activities as well.

To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other 
parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through 
a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to 
the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature 
that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user
that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that 
warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this
License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface 
presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent
item in the list meets this criterion.

1. Source Code.

The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for 
making modifications to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of 
a work.

A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an official 
standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of 
interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that 
is widely used among developers working in that language.

The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other 
than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of 
packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major 
Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major 
Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an 
implementation is available to the public in source code form. A “Major 
Component”, in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, 
window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on 
which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, 
or an object code interpreter used to run it.

The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the 
source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) 
run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control
those activities. However, it does not include the work's System 
Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs 
which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are 
not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes 
interface definition files associated with source files for the work, 
and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked 
subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such 
as by intimate data communication or control flow between those 
subprograms and other parts of the work.

The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can 
regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.

The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same 

2. Basic Permissions.

All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of 
copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated 
conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited 
permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a 
covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given 
its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges 
your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright 

You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, 
without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. 
You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having 
them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with 
facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the 
terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not 
control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for 
you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and 
control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your 
copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.

Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the 
conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes 
it unnecessary.

3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological 
measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 
11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar 
laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid 
circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention
is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the 
covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or 
modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's 
users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of 
technological measures.

4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you 
receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and 
appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; 
keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive 
terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all 
notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy 
of this License along with the Program.

You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and 
you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to 
produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the 
terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

    * a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified 
         it, and giving a relevant date.
    * b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is 
         released under this License and any conditions added under 
         section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in 
         section 4 to “keep intact all notices”.
    * c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this 
         License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This 
         License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 
         7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its 
         parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives 
         no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does 
         not invalidate such permission if you have separately received 
    * d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display 
         Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has 
         interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal 
         Notices, your work need not make them do so.

A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent 
works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, 
and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, 
in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an 
“aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not 
used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users 
beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work 
in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other 
parts of the aggregate.

6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of 
sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable 
Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these 

    * a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product 
         (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the 
         Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium 
         customarily used for software interchange.
    * b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product 
         (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a 
         written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as 
         long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that 
         product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code 
          (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the 
              software in the product that is covered by this License, 
              on a durable physical medium customarily used for software 
              interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost 
              of physically performing this conveying of source, or 
          (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network 
              server at no charge.
    * c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of 
         the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This 
         alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, 
         and only if you received the object code with such an offer, 
         in accord with subsection 6b.
    * d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated 
         place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access 
         to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same 
         place at no further charge. You need not require recipients 
         to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. 
         If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the 
         Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by 
         you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying 
         facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to 
         the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. 
         Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you 
         remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as 
         needed to satisfy these requirements.
    * e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, 
         provided you inform other peers where the object code and 
         Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the 
         general public at no charge under subsection 6d.

A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded 
from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included 
in conveying the object code work.

A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any 
tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, 
or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation
into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, 
doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular 
product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a 
typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status
of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user 
actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product 
is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial 
commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent 
the only significant mode of use of the product.

“Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, 
procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install
and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product 
from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must
 suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object 
code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because 
modification has been made.

If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or 
specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as 
part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the 
User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a 
fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the 
Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied 
by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply 
if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install 
modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has 
been installed in ROM).

The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a 
requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates 
for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for 
the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to
a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and 
adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules 
and protocols for communication across the network.

Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, 
in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly 
documented (and with an implementation available to the public in 
source code form), and must require no special password or key for 
unpacking, reading or copying.

7. Additional Terms.

“Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this 
License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. 
Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall 
be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent 
that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions 
apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately 
under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by 
this License without regard to the additional permissions.

When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove 
any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. 
(Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in 
certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional 
permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you 
have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you 
add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders 
of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

    * a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from 
         the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
    * b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices 
         or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate 
         Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or
    * c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, 
         or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked 
         in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
    * d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors 
         or authors of the material; or
    * e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some 
         trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
    * f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that 
         material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified 
         versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to 
         the recipient, for any liability that these contractual 
         assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further 
restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you 
received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is 
governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction,
you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further 
restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, 
you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that 
license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive
such relicensing or conveying.

If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must 
place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms
that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the 
applicable terms.

Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the 
form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the 
above requirements apply either way.

8. Termination.

You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly 
provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or 
modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under 
this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third 
paragraph of section 11).

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license 
from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, 
unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates 
your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to 
notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days 
after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated 
permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by 
some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice 
of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, 
and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the 

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the 
licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under 
this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently 
reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same 
material under section 10.

9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run 
a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring
solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a 
copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than 
this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered 
work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License.
Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your 
acceptance of this License to do so.

10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives
a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that
work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing 
compliance by third parties with this License.

An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an 
organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an 
organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered 
work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction 
who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the 
work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the 
previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding 
Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor 
has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights
granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose 
a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted 
under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a 
cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent 
claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or 
importing the Program or any portion of it.

11. Patents.

A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this 
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The 
work thus licensed is called the contributor's “contributor version”.

A contributor's “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned 
or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter 
acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this 
License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do 
not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of 
further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this 
definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses 
in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free 
patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make,
use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and 
propagate the contents of its contributor version.

In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express 
agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent 
(such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to 
sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a 
party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a 
patent against the party.

If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, 
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone 
to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through 
a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so 
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the 
patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner 
consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent 
license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have 
actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the 
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work 
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that 
country that you have reason to believe are valid.

If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or 
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a 
covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties 
receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify 
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license 
you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered 
work and works based on it.

A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the 
scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on 
the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically 
granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you 
are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business
of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third 
party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and 
under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would 
receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license 

(a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you 
    (or copies made from those copies), or 
(b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or 
compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into 
that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 
28 March 2007.

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting 
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise 
be available to you under applicable patent law.

12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or 
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not 
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a 
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under 
this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence 
you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that 
obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to 
whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those 
terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the 

13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission
to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3
of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, 
and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will 
continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special
requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, 
concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination 
as such.
14. Revised Versions of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions 
of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions 
will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in 
detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program 
specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public 
License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of 
following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or 
of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the 
Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public 
License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software 

If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions 
of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public 
statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to 
choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. 
However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright
holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

15. Disclaimer of Warranty.


16. Limitation of Liability.


17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided 
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, 
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates 
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program,
unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the 
Program in return for a fee.


How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest 
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it 
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these 

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to 
attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state 
the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the 
“copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

  [one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.]
  Copyright (C) [year] [name of author]

  This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
  (at your option) any later version.

  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  GNU General Public License for more details.

  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  along with this program. If not, see

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice 
like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

  [program]  Copyright (C) [year] [name of author]
  This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type 
  'show w'.
  This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
  under certain conditions; type 'show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands 'show w' and 'show c' should show the 
appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your 
program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would 
use an “about box”.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or 
school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if 
necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow 
the GNU GPL, see

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your 
program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine 
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary 
applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the 
GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, 
please read

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